Description: This map shows where Nigeria is located on the Africa map. [57] By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states. ), 134,326 kilometres are unpaved roads of city, town and village roads. "Gender Self-Endangering: The Sexist Issue in Nigerian Politics". Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of Government earnings. [142] The initial entry of IAS into Nigeria was mainly through exotic plant introductions by the colonial rulers either for forest tree plantations or for ornamental purposes. This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". It produces Buses and SUVs. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Senate President Nwafor Orizu handed over government control to the Army, then under the command of another Igbo officer, General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. [53][54] Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries. The Lake Chad basin and the coastal areas, including the Niger River delta and the western parts of the Sokoto region in the far northwest, are underlain by soft, geologically young sedimentary rocks. There were also uncertainties, such as in the first republic, that political leaders may be unable to govern properly which would bring another batch of new military rulers. The Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Fulɓe, Kanuri, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gbagyi, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%. – Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "Young Nigerians are connecting with Pentecostal churches. Nestlé Nigeria PLC is one of the largest food and beverage companies in Africa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Under a law signed in early 2014,[288] same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison. In the period before 1983 election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systematic rigging. Lagos has a number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean, including Elegushi Beach and Alpha Beach. He went on to win the elections, with the international media reporting the elections as having run smoothly with relatively little violence or voter fraud, in contrast to previous elections. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and a small population of Igbo Jews. [281] Women throughout the country were only politically emancipated in 1979. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further. [80] After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.[302]. Its coastal boundary is delimited by the Gulf of Guinea in the south and the land boundary is shared by Cameroon and Chad in the east, Niger in the north and Benin in the west. In late 1993, Shonekan's interim government, the shortest in the political history of the country was overthrown in the 1993 military coup d'état led by General Sani Abacha, who used military force on a wide scale to suppress the continuing civilian unrest. [197] By 2100 the UN estimates that the Nigerian population will be between 505 million and 1.03 billion people (middle estimate: 730 million). The British force quickly won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations. [282] Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women in Nigeria, which upholds the patriarchal system.[283]. km (356,669 sq mi), extending 1,127 km (700 mi) E–W and 1,046 km (650 mi) N–S. Its last period of military rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods. Between 1990 and 2005, in total Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares. Because of the above issues, Nigeria's political parties are pan-national and secular in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). These are in addition to several ex-situ conservation sites such as arboreta, botanical gardens, zoological gardens, and gene banks managed by several tertiary and research institutions[143], In the semi-arid and dry sub-humid savanna's of West Africa, including Nigeria, numerous species of herbaceous dicots especially from the genera Crotalaria, Alysicarpus, Cassia and Ipomea are known to be widely used in livestock production. In 1989, Babangida started making plans for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. [119], Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centerpiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa. [274] Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015. Ports are color coded by size. The satellite cost about US$500,000 to manufacture and launch. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, followed by a succession of democratically-elected civilian governments and military dictatorships, until achieving a stable democracy in 1999; the 2015 presidential election was the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election. Britain's West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. [90] Babangida's regime has been considered the most corrupt, and responsible for creating a culture of corruption in Nigeria.[91]. [273] Submission of the wife to her husband and domestic violence are common. The bill also punishes the "public show of same-sex amorous relationships directly or indirectly" with ten years in prison. [126] However the structure of the Sino-Nigerian trade relationship has become a major political issue for the Nigerian state. Nigeria has several major airports. [66][67] This declaration precipitated the Nigerian Civil War, which began as the official Nigerian government side attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967 at Garkem. [144], As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk to air pollution and studies have shown that in certain parts of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount air pollution[145]. since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country. The 2002 Miss World pageant was moved from Abuja to London in the wake of violent protests by Muslims in the Northern part of the country that left at least a hundred dead and more than 500 injured. [234] Nigeria has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ (listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a sovereign country in West Africa bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. While as of May 4, 2020 40% of Nigerians live in poverty, this number still shows the growth of the developing country, with a previously counted 61% of the population living in poverty in 2012. [219] However, in a report released by Pew Research Center in 2015, the Muslim population was estimated to be 50%, and by 2060, according to the report, Muslims will account for about 60% of the country. 68% of the Nigerian population is literate, and the rate for men (75.7%) is higher than that for women (60.6%).[249]. Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos, Kano and Enugu, forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities. [115] Under an African Union mandate, it has stationed forces in Sudan's Darfur region to try to establish peace. [158] Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner. Forced marriages are common. [68] Estimates of the number of dead in the former Eastern Region during the 30-month civil war range from one to three million. The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG), which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him; by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions. Nigeria Tourism: Tripadvisor has 42,213 reviews of Nigeria Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Nigeria resource. [292] Additionally, the very first music video played on MTV Base Africa (the 100th station on the MTV network) was Tuface Idibia's pan-African hit "African Queen". This caused controversy ECOWAS, citing France Co-opting African Unity and if ratified, would lead to a loss of sovereignty. In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. For over 57 years, Nestlé has been delighting consumers in Nigeria with high quality nutritious food products. [275] Female genital mutilation is common. [132][133] Nigeria has five cities with a population of over a million (from largest to smallest): Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Benin City and Port Harcourt. The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages but is mostly spoken like the French spoken in Benin. The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic civilization, the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. Nigeria is located in the West of Africa. [249] The government has majority control of university education. He urged all Nigerians to join either of the parties, which the late Chief Bola Ige famously referred to as "two leper hands." The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. [77] The coup plotters wanted to replace Gowon's autocratic rule with a triumvirate of three brigadier generals whose decisions could be vetoed by a Supreme Military Council. The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Igbo, Yoruba, Ijaw, Fulfulde, Ogoni, and Edo. Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and on Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. Modern Nigeria dates from 1914, when the British Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were joined. Soils in Nigeria, and in Africa generally, are usually of a poorer quality than those in other regions of the world. Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Abuja is home to several parks and green areas. Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. [129], Continuing its Africa-centered foreign policy, Nigeria introduced the Idea of a single currency for West Africa known as the Eco under the presumption that it would be led by the Naira, but on December 21st, 2019; Ivorian President Alassane OuattaraI along with Emmanuel Macron multiple other UEMOA States, announced that they would merely rename the CFA Franc (the current currency of the UEMOA states) instead of completely replacing the currency as originally intended. Nigeria's population increased by 57 million from 1990 to 2008, a 60% growth rate in less than two decades. In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked 5th in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest ranking achieved by an African football team. It has a compact area of 923,768 square kilometers (356,376 square miles). Large freshwater swamps give way to brackish mangrove thickets near the seacoast. His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, adopted a new constitution on 5 May 1999 which provided for multiparty elections. Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue river valleys (which merge and form a Y-shape). Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area.[134]. In the precolonial period the country normally produced enough agricultural commodities to feed its population, and it even maintained a surplus for export. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor. Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye, and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Seven countries border Niger. Some of the more prolific slave trading kingdoms who participated in the transatlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast. A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. From independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy. It is on the bank of the ocean’s gulf along the African guinea. [253], There is some major piracy in Nigeria, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos. [283] As of 2014, the industry was worth ₦853.9 billion (US$5.1 billion) making it the third most valuable film industry in the world, behind the United States and India. [297][298], T.B. Many countries in Africa are affected by Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Explore Nigeria Using Google Earth: The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in 1960. Mostly because of government instability, which affects the rate at which citizens of Nigeria are employed is the major reason for the poverty levels being higher in certain periods of time. The national capital is Abuja, in the Federal Capital Territory, which was created by decree in 1976. Nigeria is located in Western Africa, and borders the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin on the west and Cameroon on the east. Loose sandy soils consisting of wind-borne deposits and riverine sands are found in the northern regions, although, in areas where there is a marked dry season, a dense surface layer of laterite develops, making these soils difficult to cultivate. The Kano Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, with other major Hausa cities (or Hausa Bakwai) of: Daura, Hadeija, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau, Rano, and Gobir all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. [32][33][34] However, its Human Development Index ranks 158th in the world, and the country is classified as a lower middle-income economy, with a gross national income per capita between $1,026 and $3,986.[35]. Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa. The coastal areas are drained by short rivers that flow into the Gulf of Guinea. Car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), T-shirts, plastics and processed food. Britain annexed Lagos as a Crown Colony in August 1861 with the Lagos Treaty of Cession. Located in the city, in the Three Arms Zone, is the Presidential Complex, it consists of the "State House" and "The Aso Rock Presidential Villa", the palatial residence of the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Court of Nigeria, as well as several other federal buildings. Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence was faced with sectarian tensions and violence, particularly in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts to gain control over regional petroleum resources. In 2019, the economy began to recover slightly with the nation's real GDP growing by 2.3% and the IMF estimating another increase of 2.3% in 2020. In the middle of the 19th century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent[208] and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria. The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat and the Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency. [187] The satellite eventually failed after losing power on 11 November 2008. Most Sufis follow the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyyah and/or the Mouride movements. The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Frederick Lugard. Administratively, Nigeria remained divided into the Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos Colony. (The country joined OPEC in 1971.) [55] Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors' territory as forced labour; after time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors' society. The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. [202], Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. [233], Health care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [128] Subsequently, Nigeria's economy is becoming over-reliant on cheap foreign imports to sustain itself, resulting in a clear decline in Nigerian Industry under such arrangements. The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and also Premier Samuel Akintola of the Western Region, but the coup plotters struggled to form a central government. [222][223][224], Among Christians, the Pew Research survey found that 74% were Protestant, 25% were Catholic, and 1% belonged to other Christian denominations, including a small Orthodox Christian community. By the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country. Omissions? With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. The country's land mass extends from the Gulf of Guinea in the south to the Sahel (the shore of the Sahara Desert) in the north. In 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently exposed to lead-containing soil / ore from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. [185] The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning; and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders. [304] Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria. [158] Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria's rapid population growth, and Nigeria now relies upon food imports to sustain itself. [82] Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee of the Second Nigerian Republic.[83]. B.E.B. [267], Nigeria is a state party of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women[268] It also has signed Maputo Protocol, an international treaty on women's rights, and the African Union Women's Rights Framework. The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group (usually believed to be northern groups) numerical superiority.[134][204][205]. And supplies, ended in January 1970 informal gold mining within the Northern have... University from age 17–18 onwards and study for an academic degree ] as head of state colonel Emeka declared. 21St in the period of August 2000 to may 2001 in four Nigerian oil fields 1,481! ( an Edo name later changed to Lagos, show of same-sex amorous directly! Standards of beauty, Nigerian cuisine, like West African country located on the West and Cameroon the! 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