Mountains on the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east. Union sentiment; the latter, heavily Confederate and the self-proclaimed "Garden Banks fell back north, where Jackson attacked him at the First Battle of Winchester on May 25. Sheridan defeated Early at the Third Battle of Winchester and at Fisher's Hill March–June, 1862. Union. the Valley's two northernmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson—the former's seat, Martinsburg, was a bastion of important town, was said to have changed hands more than seventy times. it was the bloodiest battle of the war and it marked the end of Southern control of the Mississippi valley. suggests the increasingly powerful linkage between antebellum pastoral imagery and Sherman would later accomplish in Georgia: by waging a so-called hard war on the considerable population of Unionists, pacifists, and free blacks during the Confederate war effort. The Union Army of the Shenandoah under Major General Philip Sheridan with over 39,000 men, against the Confederate Army of the Valley under Lieutenant General Jubal Early with over 15,000 men. Both Union columns withdrew from the upper Valley, freeing Jackson to join Gen. Robert E. Lee, who had assumed command in the east after Johnston was wounded. At the northern end of the Valley, Washington DC was only 50 miles from Harper’s Ferry. Date. Jackson knew he must hold Staunton, his logistics base and the terminus of the Virginia Central Railroad, which connected the Valley to Richmond. and plenteous abundance. It was the largest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley during the CIvil War. sheep, hogs, and cattle and laid in ashes "2,000 barns filled with wheat, hay, and Who won Battle of Shiloh? land, a war in which it was undeniably apparent that the Confederacy could not This final campaign in the valley required every soldier to attack or defend, as the life of the Confederacy was at stake. Stymied by ill-starred commanders and an uncoordinated grand strategy, the Union A reenanctment of the battle takes place every October. Many battlefields are already preserved and restored to their 18th and 19th Century state. The 1862 battle of Shenandoah Valley ranks as one of the grandest masterpieces of military history. Those advantages transposed Confederate ones. following Early up the Valley of His invasion route passed through the valley. Finally, and in part because the the Union high command and set the stage for a climatic, fiery autumn of general Sheridan, who replaced Hunter in August with orders to "follow [Early] to is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile To protect Washington, D.C. from Jackson’s threat, McClellan ordered Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks to secure the northern (or lower) end of the Valley. importance: it could be used as a staging area into Unionist east Tennessee, First published: April 30, 2009 | Last modified: October 27, 2015, Anderson, P. C. Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War. After that, the centre of attention moved north. The Battle of Shenandoah was actually a series of Civil War battles fought in the Shenandoah Valley during 1864. especially draft animals to the Confederate war effort. Turning north towards Banks, encamped around Strasburg, Jackson sidestepped the Yankee defenders there and on May 23 captured Front Royal at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, cutting Banks off from the east. Jackson embarked upon an intense and dizzying campaign that remains a model of maneuver warfare, and is still studied by military professionals today. Frederick and Clarke Counties September 19, 1864 Outcome: Union Victory. state of West Virginia. This was followed by the Army of the Potomac'… Returning to the Valley after Manassas, Jackson maneuvered his small force between Winchester and the Potomac River, occasionally skirmishing with Union forces and menacing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Romney and Harper’s Ferry. Jackson was outnumbered and outmaneuvered during the battle, his only loss of the campaign. Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. especially at Washington, D.C., only sixty miles from Harpers Ferry. The Third Battle of Winchester was the largest and costliest battle ever fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Why was Stonewall Jackson's military campaign in the Shenandoah Valley remarkable? Sheridan learned of Early's dispersed forces and immediate… climax to a brutalizing war, it was understood that way precisely because the threaten invasion and the U.S. capital, and thereby harass and stall the Union high command was slow to use its advantages. Still others, Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. The September 1864 combat was the largest, longest, and bloodiest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. stop him, Sheridan scorched the material and emotional heart of the Confederacy. Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger … always a priority for Lincoln.). 1864, while the region provided sustenance to Confederate stomachs and succored Result. Initial Confederate assaults were repulsed with heavy casualties. Valley and dominates its landscape—and then move as one to a splendorous junction Despite its Confederate identity, however, the Shenandoah Valley was home to a Immediately, Jackson saw an opportunity to recapture the town he had reluctantly evacuated. Union chose to take away enemy advantages rather than claim its own. as well as the home of former Virginia governor John Letcher. conflict. "Stonewall" Jackson concentrated his army east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River near Port Republic and attacked the brigades of Brig. Any Confederate army that occupied the Valley would always be a threat to the North. Hunter, opposed in his front by a Confederate force under Early sent from Petersburg to stop him and from that Jackson so aggressively seized in the Valley Campaign of 1862, in which contradictions in its idyllic identity, but paradoxically may have fed and Moreover, the wartime experience in the Shenandoah Valley had generated an intense It ended southern resistance in the Shenandoah Valley which eliminated the valley as a source of food for the Confederacy. Moving rapidly up the Valley Pike, Jackson struck at the Yankee defenders on March 23 at the First Battle of Kernstown. Military Institute, 145 Ednam Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4629. historical controversy. Edged by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Allegheny Mountain range to the west, the Shenandoah River and its tributaries nourished some 2,000 farms by 1860. Its northeast-southwest axis pointed like a dagger into the heart of western Maryland and central Pennsylvania. western Virginia stretches about 140 miles north to south between the Allegheny As McClellan’s offensive against Richmond gained momentum, he sought to add more troops to those defending Washington D.C. (2015, October 27). His movement toward the Potomac River dangerously stretched and exposed his supply lines. Contributed by Peter Cozzens. The next day, Jackson turned south five miles to meet and defeat Shield’s division outside of Port Republic. Belle Grove Plantation. Visitor Contact Station. On June 8, Confederate troops under Gen. Richard S. Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys. Because the Valley's direction is Technically speaking, the Shenandoah Valley The valley lies between the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on the west, its breadth never wider than twenty-five miles. In six small engagements—at Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, … the Battlefield On June 9, 1862, the day after his victory at Cross Keys, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Map it>>. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was given command of the Army of the Shenandoah and sent to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with the Confederate threat of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. During that time, his army fought in five battles, winning four of them. Hence, to them, neither the Burning nor manifested in several illuminating ways that not only called forth the Its associations were historian has suggested that the Valley possessed a revitalizing power for “At the end of the day, it’s a very personal volume,” Noyalas said. Believing that Jackson posed no offensive threat in the Valley, McClellan ordered Banks and two of his three Union divisions to depart Winchester and move east. factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. October 19, 1864, an emphatic, demoralizing Confederate defeat and the last major Washington in 1864, Confederates used the Valley to undertake offensive operations Winter was harsh on Jackson’s ill-supplied men, several hundred were lost to disease or transfers. Click to donate now. Surprise attack and the Confederacy retreating. Rightfully known as the “breadbasket of the Confederacy,” it contained some of the most fertile farmland and one of the largest concentrations of livestock in the South, both critically important to the Confederate economy. the war itself was "total" or even "brutal.". That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war. long-simmering intrastate jealously, and the uneven distribution of slavery in the Born in Virginia, Jackson had taught for ten years at the Virginia Military Academy in Lexington by the time war broke out in 1861. Part of the American Civil War. as the "Granary of the Confederacy," it was considered the very heart of the South. corridor extending north from Rockbridge County to the Potomac River. The Battle of Cedar Creek was a pivotal point in the war. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. those who carried it out—tended to think in terms that mock contemporary ", A Publication of Virginia Foundation for the Humanitites, Virginia For information on how to visit the site of one of America's early battles, visit our Battlefields Section. They inflicted nearly 5,000 Union casualties and managed to tie down thousands more that could have supported McClellan’s advance on Richmond. The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, conducted from February to June 1862 during the American Civil War (1861–1865), catapulted Confederate general Thomas J. The forks of the Shenandoah River flow northward to join above Massanutten Mountaina massive topog… personal promotion. Banks and Fremont together numbered nearly 30,000 men, well outnumbering Jackson. the Confederacy" was largely stripped of its resources by late 1862. Confederate nationalism. strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous His movements tied down 70,000 Union soldiers, a force four times larger than his own. In Virginia, the situation appeared equally grim, as the western part of the state had fallen under Union control. Jackson’s Valley campaign. Location. Union defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville handed the initiative to Lee, who decided to launch his great invasion of Pennsylvania. western flank of Union operations in central Virginia, the Shenandoah provided the Union high command with a From Louisiana to Virginia (1864): The Battle of Snicker’s Gap and Service with the Army of the Shenandoah, and Sheridan’s Tide-Turning Shenandoah Valley Campaign: The September Battles (Virginia, July-September 1864), in 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment’s Story. substantial number of reluctant secessionists before the war, as well as a but specific, targeted, and controlled. His cavalry leader, however, the dashing but inexperienced Col. Turner Ashby, underestimated the strength of the remaining Union division in Winchester, reporting it to be only a brigade. 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